What is the difference between apt-get update and upgrade?

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You should first run update, then upgrade. Neither of them automatically runs the other.

  • apt-get update updates the list of available packages and their versions, but it does not install or upgrade any packages.
  • apt-get upgrade actually installs newer versions of the packages you have. After updating the lists, the package manager knows about available updates for the software you have installed. This is why you first want to update.

Source: http://askubuntu.com/questions/94102/what-is-the-difference-between-apt-get-update-and-upgrade

How to understand the Ubuntu file system layout?

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You can read up on this on for instance wikipedia. An excerpt:

The Filesystem Hierarchy Standard (FHS) defines the main directories and their contents in Linux operating systems. For the most part, it is a formalization and extension of the traditional BSD filesystem hierarchy.

The FHS is maintained by the Linux Foundation, a non-profit organization consisting of major software and hardware vendors, such as HP, Red Hat, IBM and Dell. The current version is 3.0, released on June 3, 2015.

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Best Linux and Open Source Apps for the Enterprise in 2015

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Linux and Open Source technologies rule the enterprise segments. There are so many products and projects out there which are rescuing small and medium businesses from legacy software companies.

Every small and medium business has its own peculiar use-cases and there is no one-sized -fits-all in this segment. I chose some tools which can play a pivotal role in your enterprise. These are the top Linux and open source applications for small and medium businesses or even SOHO players.You may be surprised to hear that the entire stack of proprietary technologies can be replaced with those that run on Linux and Open Source. How about beginning 2015 with a fresh stack of vendor neutral, cost effective Linux and open source technologies? Continue reading